In another case of going above and beyond to assure total immersion in a fictional world, linguist David J. Peterson expanded upon the few phrases and words George R.R. Martin had created in his book series for the TV series of the same name. Peterson was lucky enough to have free reign in his creation of the language as long as he incorporated what Martin had already written.
The language itself is basically a ground-up creation, with grammatical and pronunciation influences simultaneously from hundreds of real-world languages, without being tied to definitive characteristics of any of specific languages. Some different grammatical points include four grammatical gender classes for nouns and consonants and vowels found in languages as diverse as Greek, Nahuatl and Xhosa.
Klingon is unique since it wasn't created from the ground-up as a nearly-complete language. Rather, it evolved into that from a simple system of words and sounds that James Doohan, who played Scotty in the original series, came up with for Star Trek: The Motion Picture.
From there, as demand grew for a real language, linguist Marc Okrand became involved, and based the fledgling language's grammar on the Na-Dene language Tlingit, spoken in groups from Southern Alaska to Washington. However, its vowels and consonants come from a variety of rare sounds in real-world languages, such as those created from the uvula. Currently, the Klingon Language Institute offers lessons.
Sindarin was in fact based upon the grammar of real-life language Welsh (with Icelandic and some Old Norse and Old English thrown in). It was chosen because Tolkien wanted a literary language that would be different from the majority of European languages. It's also one of the oldest fictional languages on this list (see also Quenya, later on this list), stemming from Tolkien's writings during the 1920s.
Some interesting and unusual points of Sindarin (unless you're Welsh or Icelandic) include several nasal consonants and vowels, as well as two contrastive forms of "th," not normally found outside of English (think "thin" vs. "the") and two systems of grammatical number.
Unlike Klingon, this Star Trek language was created deliberately from the ground up, although not by a linguist, unlike many others on this list. Instead, author Diane Duane put together the vocabulary and basic grammar for the language, with the details refined over the years by the fan-run Imperial Romulan Language Institute.
As such, the language is fairly straightforward, using the exact same alphabet as English, just rendered into alien symbols. Pronunciations are fairly straightforward as well; however, Romulan is strikingly different than English when it comes to grammar, with adjectives following nouns and seven classes of declinable nouns alongside four grammatical cases.
You might be surprised to know that for an animated kids' movie, linguist Marc Okrand (yes, him again) spent a lot of time creating a comprehensive grammar for a language that was hardly ever spoken on-screen. Unlike many others on this list, Atlantean was designed to be specifically Indo-European, given the language's on-screen role as the mother of all such languages.
To that end, Okrand decided to use reconstructed word roots from proto-Indo European, as well as early forms of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. The grammar was based mostly upon Sumerian and early forms of Chinese, and as such contains lots of prefixes and suffixes, plenty of grammatical cases and strict word order.
A language designed just for the titular people featured in the TV series and movie Land of the Lost, this language was constructed from the ground up by linguist Victoria Fromkin and takes most of its grammatical cues, such as word order, from English.
However, in other grammatical respects, things are a bit different. For instance, small particles, or affixes, are attached to a root word to create different forms of that same word, similar to Quechua and Japanese. And where the affixes are attached, at the beginning or end of the word, not to mention which affixes are used, alters the word's meaning considerably.
Believe it or not, a full-fledged linguist was brought on board to develop a language for a film already ground-breakingly immersive for its time. Linguist Paul Frommer, the mastermind behind its creation, decided to create a language that would be easy for human actors to pronounce, but still sound very alien.
Na'vi was created specifically to use grammar that's very rare among real-life languages. Some of these characteristics include tripartite alignment (an alternate way of describing verbs which take objectsfound in Basque and several Amazon Basin languages, among others) and verbs that don't need take tense or aspect (i.e. don't need to be conjugated) if those features can be implied by context.
This second Game of Thrones language was also developed by linguist David J. Peterson, and specifically mixes and matches from both Indo European and non-Indo European languages to create a unique sound that, like Valyrian, sounds and acts like it might actually be a natural language.
Some specific examples of these connections include a word order that is specifically patterned after English, combined with pronunciations which draw heavily from both Spanish and several modern Arabic dialects. And in terms of grammar, nouns are classified by animacy, or how sentient the thing the noun represents is, like in Navajo, Russian and several other languages, and also enjoy five grammatical cases.
Just like Sindarin, Quenya is primarily based upon a real-life language; Finnish, in this case, which, like Sindarin's main substrate of Welsh, is notably different from the majority of European languages. However, also like Sindarin, Tolkien also included some Latin, Greek and Old English influences simply because he was very familiar with those languages.
For example, Quenya's pronunciation is very influenced by Latin, which makes its pronunciation relatively easy for Germanic and Romance language speakers, but its morphology, or forms of its words, is very influenced by Finnish with complex words made up of multiple attached particles. Even more notable, it allows long consonant combinations which are normally only found in Slavic languages such as Polish.
Again, while this language was not featured on-screen in the original three movies, and only saw very limited use in the prequels, a whole grammar, vocabulary and even songs and poems in the language have sprung up for Expanded Universe Media, with the development of the language spearheaded by author Karen Traviss.
The language itself is not aligned with any specific real-world language, but instead takes grammatical cues from several real-world languages such as Romance languages (in terms of its verb conjugation ”” taking an infinitive and affixing a particle to the end to inflect for person, tense and aspect) and even Quechuan languages (specific particles attach to basic words in specific orders to create complex words, and the orders of these attached particles matter).